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Technical Publications

File Witcher et al. 2012. Factors affecting early seedling development in whole pine tree substrates.
Whole pine tree, either fresh or aged, did not inhibit seed germination or seedling root growth of various test species. Many substrates tested against whole pine tree. Witcher, A, EK Blythe, GB Fain, KJ Curry, and CT Pounders. 2012. SNA Reseach Conference 57:314-319.
File Murphy et al. 2010. Extending pine bark supplies with wholetree and clean chip residual subsrates.
Comprehensive study that tested growth of major crops in various percentages of pine bark and two alternative substrates. Offers good history of the two substrates and their limitations in past research. This research will provide answers to growers looking to use substrate as an alternative or addition to pine bark. Murphy, A-M, CH Gilliam, GB Fain, HA Torbert, TV Gallagher, JL Sibley, SC Marble, and AL Witcher. JEH 28:217-223 (2010).
File Murphy, A-M. 2012. Alternative substrates in production of trees in 25-gallon containers.
A continuation of research to show that wood-based substrates used either extensively (100%) or as an amendment to pine bark substrates did not affect growth of common trees grown in large containers. Murphy, A-M, CH Gilliam, GB Fain, HA Torbert, TV Gallagher, JL Sibley, and SC Marble. SNA Research Conference 57:55-59.
File Wright et al Evaluation of composted municipal waste as an amendment to pine bark for use in container ornamental production.
Evaluated composted household garbage (municipal solid waste compost (MSWC) as an amendment to composted pine bark for use as a growing substrate in container plant production. Studies suggested that currently replacing about one-third of pine bark with MSWC can be effectively used to grow a wide variety of container plants or flowers. Wright, AN, JL Sibley, and W Lu. Center for Applied Nursery Research.
File Croxton SD 2004. Evaluation of composted household garbage as a horticultural substrate.
SL Sibley, W Lu and M Schaefer SNA Research Proceedings 49.
File Jackson et al. 2004 Cotton gin compost as a substrate component in container production of ornamental plants.
Adding outputs from other industries as inputs into horticultural substrates. Composted cotton gin by-products can provide a viable alternative substrate for production of containerized ornamental crops. BE Jackson, AN Wright, and JL Sibley. SNA RESEARCH CONFERENCE 49:67-69 (2004).
File Owen JS 2004 Finding the balance: calcined clay rate effects in pine bark substrates.
Good treatment design to know where on the scale of clay amendment rate growth is affected. When clay was used to amend pine bark at rates greater than 12% (by vol.) plant dry weight decreased. JS Owen, Jr, SL Warren, TE Bilderback, and JP Albano. SNA RESEARCH CONFERENCE 49:73-76 (2004).
File Jackson BE 2009 Pine tree subsrate: an alterntative and renewable substrate for horticultural crop production. in ACTA hort
Brian Jackson's early work on using de-limbed logs (no needles, but does contain small volumes of bark) as a wood-based substrate for ornamental plant production. BE Jackson and RD Wright 2009. ACTA Hort. 819:265-272.
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This project received support from the North Carolina Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services as part of the Specialty Crops Block Grant Program.

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