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File Lea-Cox, J. 2011. Smart irrigation strategies.
Dr. John Lea-Cox is a leader in smart irrigation using sensor technology to monitor water availability in containers and field plants. Here Dr. Lea-Cox provides pragmatic solutions to control irrigation by relying on sensing water in the container. Nursery Management online April 2011.
File Stanley, J. 2012. Using leaching fraction to maximize irrigation efficiency. IPPS-SR.
Jane Stanley, of Saunders Brothers, Inc., measures leaching fractions in containers by weight using a scale, then uses that information to adjust irrigation run time. With little technological input ( a scale), Stanley, demonstrates the practical application and success of scheduling irrigation in a nursery. Excellent reference presented at the International Plant Propagators Society, Southern Region meeting.. Can be found here:
File Yeary, Fulcher, and Leib. 2016. Nursery Irrigation: A guide for reducing risk and improving irrigation.
Whitney Yeary, Amy Fulcher, and Brian Leib. 2016. University of Tennessee. PB 1836. Nationally award winning publication contains everything you need to know about source water quality, strategies to use less water while watering, improving plant growth, using fewer inputs, and great success stories of implementation of these concepts in nurseries. Find it at
File Warsaw et al. 2010. Water conservation, growth, and water use efficiency of containergrown woody ornamentals irrigated based on daily water use.
Excellent technical article on using the amount of water plants use daily as the amount of water they receive as irrigation. Most plants were same size as control, yet used less water, so plants were grouped according to water needs. Warsaw, A.L., R.T. Fernandez, B.M. Cregg, and J.A. Andresen. HortScience 44:1308–1318. 2009.
File Owen. 2007. What’s your leaching fraction?
A short article about the mechanics of measuring leaching fractions. Owen, J.S. Digger Dec 40-43 (2007).
File Williamson et al. 2004 Timing of overhead irrigation affects growth and substrate temperature of container-grown plants.
Study shows that irrigating cyclically during the day, rather than before sunrise increases growth. Authors suggest decreased leaf and substrate temperature during the day from irrigating might be associated with increased growth. CS Williamson, SL Warren, and TE Bilderback. SNA RESEARCH CONFERENCE 49:77-80 (2004).
File Bilderback 2002. Water management is key in reducing nutrient runoff from container nuseries.
Excellent overview of many ways to reduce runoff from plant placement, irrigation management, and vegetative buffers. HortTechnology 12:7-9 (2002).
File LeBude and Bilderback. 2007. Managing drought on nursery crops.
Guidelines to aid growers in making decisions about irrigating during drought. Covers container, field, and pot in pot systems. NCCES DRO-018.
File Bilderback. What is a leaching fraction?
Learn the basics of measuring and calculating a leaching fraction with examples provided.
File Bilderback. Cycled irrigation improves irrigation efficiency.
Dr. Bilderback talks about cycling irrigation to deliver the entire volume of irrigation in frequent short bursts over the day rather than at one irrigation event. NCCES.
File Bilderback. Container nursery irrigation efficiency, interception efficiency and leaching fraction practices.
An annotated power point as pdf, which combines most of Dr. Bilderback's articles in this section into graphically illustrated examples in the nursery industry. NCCES.
File Warren & Bilderback. 2005. More plant per gallon.
A review of research to increase water efficiency by studying water application efficiency, irrigation scheduling, and substrate amendment in nursery production. HortTechnology 15:14-18.
File Bilderback. Calculating irrigation resources and application efficiency.
Dr. Bilderback shows how to calculate pond volume and how much water your system is applying per rate of time. NCCES.
File Owen et al. 2011. Understanding container moisture.
The use of real-time moisture monitoring and irrigation control has many potential benefits which are discussed for the Pacific Northwest but the concepts are relevant in the southeast U.S. Owen, J.S., H. Stoven, and D. Bailey. Digger July 42-45 (2011).
File Haman & Yeager. 2001. Field evaluation of container nursery irrigation systems: measuring uniformity of water application of microirrigation systems.
Performance of microirrigation systems can be evaluated by measuring operating pressures, application rates, and uniformity of water application under nursery conditions. In this article, a simple test to determine the uniformity of water application is presented. Haman, D. and T.H. Yeager. U. Fl. FS98-1.
File Evans et al 1997. Field Calibration Procedures for Animal Wastewater Application Equipment: Hard hose cable tow traveler. IRRIGATION SYSTEM.
Excellent reference to learn how to calibrate a hose and reel irrigation gun for field application of water. The text deals with waste application, but the theory of calibration is still the same to increase efficiency of irrigation application to field-planted liners. SPOILER ALERT: Contains Math:). R.O. Evans, J.C. Barker, J.T. Smith, R.E. Sheffield, Biological and Agricultural Engineering Extension Specialists, NC State University. 1997. ag 553 2.
File Haman & Yeager. 2001. Field evaluation of container nursery irrigation systems: uniformity of water application in sprinkler systems.
A simple method to measure uniform water application, which is necessary to maximize the efficiency of water use in the nursery to save water. Haman, D.Z. and T.H. Yeager. U. Fl. 2FS98-2.
File Haman & Yeager. Controlling irrigation with tensiometers and time domain reflectometry (TDR).
A final report from years of research about using various tools to monitor water in containers to control irrigation. Final Report; Haman, D.Z. & T.H. Yeager U. Florida.
File Haman & Yeager. 1997. Field evaluation of container nursery irrigation systems Part 2: measuring application rates.
Discusses the measurement of application rates for overhead sprinkler systems. Haman, D. and T.H. Yeager. U. Fl. AE-261 (1997).
File Warren and Bilderback 2002. Timing of low pressure irrigation affects plant growth and water utilization efficiency.
Early work that shows using three cyclic irrigation volumes to apply the total irrigation volume in the afternoon can lower substrate temperature and increase growth compared to doing the same thing watering before 0700 or 1200. SL Warren and TE Bilderback J. Environ. Hort. 20(3):184–188 (2002).
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This project received support from the North Carolina Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services as part of the Specialty Crops Block Grant Program.

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